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    作文網,小學生作文,初中作文,高中作文,作文題材大全!

    科學家霍金的勵志人生

    編輯:作文網 | 來源:名人故事

    斯蒂芬·威廉·霍金,英國劍橋大學應用數學及理論物理學系教授,當代最重要的廣義相對論和宇宙論家,是當今享有國際盛譽的偉人之一,被稱為在世的最偉大的科學家,還被稱為“宇宙之王”。70年代他與彭羅斯一起證明了著名的奇性定理,為此他們共同獲得了1988年的沃爾夫物理獎。他因此被譽為繼愛因斯坦之后世界上最著名的科學思想家和最杰出的理論物理學家。他還證明了黑洞的面積定理,即隨著時間的增加黑洞的面積不減。這很自然使人將黑洞的面積和熱力學的熵聯系在一起。

    史蒂芬·霍金,出生于1942年1月8日,這個時候他的家鄉倫敦正籠罩在希特勒的狂轟濫炸中。這迫使霍金一家搬離海格特的家園,遷到牛津避難。他們在霍金誕生后又回到了倫敦。童年時的霍金,學業成績并不突出,但喜歡設計極為復雜的玩具,據說他曾做出一臺簡單的電腦。

    霍金和他的妹妹在倫敦附近的幾個小鎮度過了自己的童年。多年以后,他們的鄰居回憶說,當霍金躺在搖籃車中時非常引人注目,他的頭顯得很大,異于常人——這多半是因為霍金現在的名聲與成就遠遠異于常人,鄰居不由自主地要在記憶里重新刻畫一下天才兒童的形象。

    霍金熱衷于搞清楚一切事情的來龍去脈,因此當他看到一件新奇的東西時總喜歡把它拆開,把每個零件的結構都弄個明白——不過他往往很難再把它裝回原樣,因為他的手腳遠不如頭腦那樣靈活,甚至寫出來的字在班上也是有名的潦草。

    霍金在17歲時進入牛津大學學習物理。他仍舊不是一個用功的學生,而這種態度與當時其他同學是一致的,這是戰后出現的青年人迷惘時期——他們對一切厭倦,覺得沒有任何值得努力追求的東西。霍金在學校里與同學們一同游蕩、喝酒、參加賽船俱樂部,如果事情這樣發展下去,那么他很可能成為一個庸庸碌碌的職員或教師。然而,病魔出現了。

    病魔出現了

    從童年時代起,運動從來就不是霍金的長項,幾乎所有的球類活動他都不行。

    到牛津的第三年,霍金注意到自己變得更笨拙了,有一兩回沒有任何原因地跌倒。一次,他不知何故從樓梯上突然跌下來,當即昏迷,差一點死去。

    直到1962年霍金在劍橋讀研究生后,他的母親才注意到兒子的異常狀況。剛過完21歲生日的霍金在醫院里住了兩個星期,經過各種各樣的檢查,他被確診患上了“盧伽雷氏癥”,即運動神經細胞萎縮癥。

    大夫對他說,他的身體會越來越不聽使喚,只有心臟、肺和大腦還能運轉,到最后,心和肺也會失效。霍金被“宣判”只剩兩年的生命。那是在1963年。

    起初,這種病惡化得相當迅速。這對霍金的打擊是可想而知的,他幾乎放棄了一切學習和研究,因為他認為自己不可能活到完成碩士論文的那一天。

    輪椅出現了

    霍金的病情漸漸加重。1970年,在學術上聲譽日隆的霍金已無法自己走動,他開始使用輪椅。直到今天,他再也沒離開它。

    永遠坐進輪椅的霍金,極其頑強地工作和生活著。

    1991年3月,霍金在一次坐輪椅回柏林公寓,過馬路時被小汽車撞倒,左臂骨折,頭被劃破,縫了13針,但48小時后,他又回到辦公室投入工作。

    又有一次,他和友人去鄉間別墅,上坡時拐彎過急,輪椅向后傾倒,不料這位引力大師卻被地球引力翻倒在灌木叢中。

    雖然身體的殘疾日益嚴重,霍金卻力圖像普通人一樣生活,完成自己所能做的任何事情。他甚至是活潑好動的——這聽來有點好笑,在他已經完全無法移動之后,他仍然堅持用惟一可以活動的手指驅動著輪椅在前往辦公室的路上“橫沖直撞”;在莫斯科的飯店中,他建議大家來跳舞,他在大廳里轉動輪椅的身影真是一大奇景;當他與查爾斯王子會晤時,旋轉自己的輪椅來炫耀,結果軋到了查爾斯王子的腳趾頭。

    當然,霍金也嘗到過“自由”行動的惡果,這位量子引力的大師級人物,多次在微弱的地球引力左右下,跌下輪椅,幸運的是,每一次他都頑強地重新“站”起來。

    來自直覺的啟示:黑洞不黑

    霍金的研究對象是宇宙,但他對觀測天文從不感興趣,只有幾次用望遠鏡觀測過。與傳統的實驗、觀測等科學方法相比,霍金的方法是靠直覺。

    “黑洞不黑”這一偉大成就就來源于一個閃念。在1970年11月的一個夜晚,霍金在慢慢爬上床時開始思考黑洞的問題。他突然意識到,黑洞應該是有溫度的,這樣它就會釋放輻射。也就是說,黑洞其實并不那么黑。

    這一閃念在經過3年的思考后形成了完整的理論。1973年11月,霍金正式向世界宣布,黑洞不斷地輻射出X光、伽馬射線等,這就是有名的“霍金輻射”。而在此之前,人們認為黑洞只吞不吐。

    從宇宙大爆炸的奇點到黑洞輻射機制,霍金對量子宇宙論的發展做出了杰出的貢獻。霍金獲得1988年的沃爾夫物理獎。

    我的手指還能活動,我的大腦還能思維;我有終身追求的理想,我有愛和愛我的親人朋友;對了,我還有一顆感恩的心……(在一次新聞發布會上,一位女記者提出一個刁鉆的問題,但霍金還是以恬靜的微笑這樣回答)霍金不僅以他的成就征服了科學界,也以他頑強搏斗的精神征服了世界。勵志照亮人生,成功改變命運!

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